Case study of public Human Genome Project vs private firm Celera on gene-level patents.
“Across a range of empirical specifications, I found evidence that Celera’s IP led to reductions in subsequent scientific research and product development on the order of 20 to 30 percent.”
Heidi L. Williams. Journal of Political Economy Vol. 121, No. 1 (February 2013), pp. 1-27.